How have aircraft cockpits changed over the decades?

first_imgFewer dials improve flight operationsThe number of dials required for cockpit procedures reduced dramatically. For normal procedures, the number of dials/gauges reduced from 107 to 34; for engine fire, from 15 to 4; for fuel jettison, from 11 to 7; for decompression, from 20 to 3; and for cargo fire, from 16 to 2. The simplification doesn’t end there. Fourteen computers dedicated to flight control on the 747-300 were replaced by just three on the -400 model. Glass cockpitWhat is now termed “the glass cockpit” was introduced by Airbus with the A320 family in the mid-1980s, followed by the 747 and MD-11 in the early 1990s. The advances in cockpit automation have also led to a dramatic improvement in safety. This is best illustrated by the evolution of the Douglas DC-9 which first flew in 1965 into the latest model the Boeing 717. In 1965, the initial DC-9 had a crash record of 1.26 Per one Million Departures (PMD). In 1980, an updated model, the DC-9 Super 80, later renamed the MD-80, had a crash rate of 0.43 PMD. From 1996 to 2013, the ultimate version, the MD-95, renamed 717 after the merger with Boeing, has had a perfect record. Need for fewer flight crewThe navigator’s position disappeared in the early 1960s, together with the engineer’s role. While the three-engine 140-seat 727 of 1962 required an engineer, the twin-engine 100-seat DC-9 of 1965 was certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with just two flight crew. In 1981 the FAA deemed that a flight engineer was no longer required on any aircraft and that a two-pilot crew was safe, due to the advances in cockpit automation and the dramatic improvement in engine reliability. Cockpit computerization advancesIn 1991 that dramatic increase in automation was underscored when Boeing moved from an analogue (conventional) cockpit with gauges and dials on the 747-300 to a computerized cockpit for the 747-400 with eight-inch Cathode Ray Tube (CRTs) displays. The result was the elimination of 600 dials and gauges. An illustration of the improvement in cockpit technology was the significant reduction in crew procedures from the 747-300 to the 747-400.center_img Flying by the starsThe first aircraft cockpits were rudimentary affairs with just a handful of instruments to provide the pilot with very basic information. However, by 1939 cockpits had become very complex. On the Boeing 314 Clipper the cockpit required a crew of five. Even on the first jet powered commercial aircraft like the 707 in the 1950s, you would find a four-crew cockpit with two pilots, an engineer and a navigator. There was even an observation dome for star sightings to assist with navigation! According to Boeing’s 2018 Pilot & Technician Outlook, the industry will need 790,000 new civil aviation pilots and 754,000 new maintenance technicians to fly and maintain the world fleet over the next 20 years. last_img read more

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WEF Africa 2016: connecting Africa’s resources through digital transformation

first_imgWith Africa’s economy under pressure, the World Economic Forum on Africa meeting in Kigali, Rwanda, will look at how the continent’s technology industry can help overcome its challenges.Rwanda’s capital, Kigali will host this year’s WEF Africa. (Image: Flickr, Lori Howe)Africa’s positive economic outlook is under pressure – mainly due to adverse changes in the global economy – and is expected to remain just below 5% in 2016.As many countries in the region improve their investment climate and undertake macroeconomic policy reforms, foreign direct investment flows are expected to continue to grow, although at a slower pace.Low global prices for major commodity exports, currency devaluations and debt sustainability considerations, as well as geosecurity threats that have weakened growth in some countries underscore the urgent need for economic diversification for sustained inclusive growth.In this context, Africa’s leaders need to pursue new approaches to ignite structural transformation, particularly in the face of rapid technological changes that have the potential to create new industries and reduce inequality.Under the theme Connecting Africa’s Resources through Digital Transformation, the 26th World Economic Forum on Africa, being held in Kigali, Rwanda, between 11-13 May, will bring together regional and global leaders from business, government and civil society.They will discuss digital economy catalysts that can drive radical structural transformation, strengthen public-private collaboration on key global and regional challenges, and agree on strategic actions that can deliver shared prosperity across the continent.Rwanda, the land of a thousand hills, has dramatically transformed since the 1994 genocide. The country is emerging as a regional high-tech hub and boasts one of sub-Saharan Africa’s fastest GDP growth rates. It is one of the continent’s most competitive economies and a top reformer in improving the business environment.This remarkable progress showcases the country’s rapid evolution as a knowledge economy, powered by smart policies and investments. Nonetheless, further reforms and alliances are called for to accelerate development by leveraging digital transformation to expand socio-economic opportunities.South Africa will be sending a delegation to Kigali for the conference. Follow them on Twitter using #SAinKigali.last_img read more

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How do Man Utd end Pogba v Mou war? Get rid of both

first_imgHow did it all come to this? Two grown adults squabbling in thinly-veiled public soundbites at a time when the people they represent need them now, more than ever, to sort out their act and get on with performing in the best interests of Manchester United.Paul Pogba and Jose Mourinho. “Oil and water” was how Sir Alex Ferguson likened his relationship with Pogba’s agent Mino Raiola ahead of the Frenchman’s initial departure from Old Trafford as a 19-year-old in 2012, and the same term might well be used for the differences between Pogba and his current manager as the rift between them grows every day.The list of issues is as long as one’s arm, with Mourinho publicly chastising Pogba for his failure to win a header against Newcastle and then picking Scott McTominay ahead of him for the Champions League tie against Sevilla. Editors’ Picks Man Utd ready to spend big on Sancho and Haaland in January Who is Marcus Thuram? Lilian’s son who is top of the Bundesliga with Borussia Monchengladbach Brazil, beware! Messi and Argentina out for revenge after Copa controversy Best player in MLS? Zlatan wasn’t even the best player in LA! Then there’s Pogba refusing time and again to commit his future to United when questioned during World Cup duty. Mourinho responded by suggesting Pogba’s summer success with France and relative failure with United was due to a short attention span in longer seasons.And that was all even before this season started!The last seven weeks has been one tedious saga after another, with the latest issues resulting in Mourinho telling Pogba he will never again captain United despite having recently served as vice-skipper, and on Wednesday there followed footage of a heated exchange on the training ground after the manager greeted his exuberant midfielder with a message which managed to immediately alter the player’s mood.Whatever their clear disdain for each other – because, let’s face it, this is more than mere dislike right now – there has to be some sort of resolution in the name of progress for the club. And however you look at the present situation, the biggest loser right now is Manchester United.Already eight points adrift on the Premier League ladder and having been this week dumped out of the Carabao Cup by Derby, the last thing the club needs is for this nonsense to continue. But what is the answer?Plainly put, if the two cannot grow up and work out their issues, then at least one of them has to go. And Pogba arguably should be the first out of the door as things stand.Paul Pogba quote on Jose Mourinho Manchester UnitedThe 25-year-old, normally known for shunning many an invitation to speak to the press, has taken glee from stopping in the mixed zone on numerous occasions already this season as he seeks opportunities to stick the knife in.“There are things that I cannot say otherwise I will get fined,” is Pogba attempting to make a point of the fact all is not well. “I am not the manager, I cannot, like, say that, but obviously we should show more options of playing,” is not the rhetoric of somebody working for the group cause.Right now, Pogba couldn’t be doing a better job of alienating himself among the United fan base if he tried. But then the suggestion that he is attempting to do exactly that is not beyond the question either, as repeated talk of interest from Barcelona, Juventus and Paris Saint-Germain will always pique the curiosity of Raiola. And when the super-agent sniffs a great deal for himself and his players, he rarely loses the scent.For as long as Pogba is taking every opportunity to land a snide counter-blow every time Mourinho opens his mouth, there is no hope of anything but open warfare between the two. And if the club are to maintain a grip on the runaway power that players have to dictate the course of the organisation’s destiny whenever the whim takes them, they need to side with their manager and make a statement.If United had backed players over the manager every time Ferguson had a run-in with one of his stars, the great Scot could have been sacked a million times over and the club would likely have come nowhere near the success they achieved. The likes of Ryan Giggs, Lee Sharpe, David Beckham, Roy Keane, Wayne Rooney and many others would all have had their United careers curtailed long before they eventually moved on.Paul Pogba Manchester United 2018-19But all of that is not to say that Mourinho is untouchable. Fundamentally, it is results which should always dictate a manager’s job security and, quite simply, United’s form is hardly helping the Portuguese’s case.There is every possibility that Mourinho could outlast Pogba at Old Trafford only to remain a sitting duck thanks to his inability to get the best out of this squad. Sure, the group ought to have been strengthened further in the summer, but the players he has are still massively underperforming and he has to sort that sooner rather than later.It should not be the Pogba war which brings about the end of Mourinho’s tenure, but it could end up helping to be a deciding factor nonetheless. Should January arrive with the manager encouraging the board to allow Pogba to leave in a bid to allow everyone to move on there are two scenarios which would potentially come into play.If United are flying and back in with a shout of Champions League football and potentially even an outside interest in the title race, then Mourinho’s words will carry some gravitas. In those circumstances, a petition to sell Pogba might be agreed upon by executive vice-chair Ed Woodward and the board.Ed Woodward, Jose MourinhoBut should they continue their struggles through the autumn, by the time the transfer window comes around what board of directors is going to be convinced to sell their biggest playing asset by a manager whose own future would be very much up in the air? Flog potentially your best player because a dead man walking asks you to? Doubtful.As such, United’s results over the next three months become monumental for Mourinho. Not just because he needs to get his side back into a position of strength but also because on a personal level he must regain a position of true power when it comes to the club’s decision-makers choosing between him and Pogba.But even if he sees the back of Pogba, the chances of Mourinho lasting much longer than the Frenchman appear narrow given the current state of affairs. Because this story is oh so typically Jose Mourinho.Whether it is Iker Casillas, Eva Carneiro, Henrikh Mkhitaryan, Luke Shaw, Anthony Martial or Paul Pogba, it appears that Mourinho always has to be grappling with somebody to take the attention away from the graver issues beneath the surface.Selling Pogba would not mark the end of the problems, and nor would siding with the player and sacking the manager.With a player looking to undermine his manager and a manager picking fights wherever he can, United’s best resolution might well be to find exit strategies for the pair of them.But until that time comes, the only thing that can be guaranteed is that the fireworks will continue behind the microphones around Old Trafford way. Check out Goal’s Premier League 2019-20 fantasy football podcast for game tips, debate and rivalries.last_img read more

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