Stardust Finds Burnt Rock in Comet Dust

first_imgIn a surprise upset, scientists analyzing cometary material returned from the Stardust mission found minerals that must have glowed white-hot when they formed.  Comets were long thought to have formed in the outer fringes of the solar nebula or in the Oort Cloud, far from the sun where it’s icy cold and calm.  They were supposed to represent pristine material from the time before planets formed.  Whether this glazed material found in Comet Wild 2 fragments represents later processing as the comet neared the sun, or means that solar nebula material involved a great deal of mixing early on (meaning that no unprocessed material remains), or formed around other stars – or some other possibility – will require additional study.  Sources: BBC News, National Geographic, University of Washington and JPL press releases.  The later states, “Comets, they said, may not be as simple as the clouds of ice, dust and gases they were thought to comprise.  They may be diverse with complex and varied histories.”  The scientists found olivine (common to volcanic lavas), and “exotic, high-temperature minerals rich in calcium, aluminum and titanium.”  According to the BBC article, the two leading theories are (1) that the material was cooked by other stars, or (2) that it was cooked by the sun then blasted to far distances by a so-called “X-wind” process.  But Stardust co-investigator Mike Zolensky admitted, “This raises as many questions as answers.  We can’t answer them all just yet.” For years—for decades—they have been telling us that comets held the secrets to the early solar system.  Drifting in the dark cold of the outer realms of the sun, comets were supposed to have accreted slowly from the original dust and ice of a molecular cloud.  They only neared the sun when perturbed by a passing star and were flung into the sun’s neighborhood.  This thinking has its origin in Laplace’s Nebular Hypothesis of the late 1700s.  Today’s news is a complete turnaround.  Now we have actual material from a live comet, showing that at least some of the material was so hot it was incandescent.  Some of the material looks like it was born in the fires of a rocky planet.  What Stardust has found will rewrite the textbooks and renders many a TV documentary obsolete.  An ounce of data is worth a ton of speculation.  That’s why the public should support sample-return and onsite-reconnaissance missions like Stardust, regardless of their opinions on origins and ages of things, if for no other reason than the entertainment of watching experts squirm.(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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Video Essay: The Significance of the Shot-React-Shot Sequence

first_imgIn this video tutorial, find out why the Kuleshov effect just might be one of the most important aspects of successful filmmaking.In this video essay from No Film School, we get to explore why the Kuleshov effect can make or break your story. Or, to be more specific, your edit. The idea is simple; try to stay with me here — your shot must logically follow another shot. So, if one character is staring at something, show the audience what they’re staring at.Okay, I hope I didn’t lose you there. The reason why two shots juxtaposed like this is important is because understanding how an audience reads text is the very basis of filmmaking. What are they thinking while they’re looking at your images?The effect was named after Lev Kuleshov after he performed an experiment on how people react to certain types of editing. In the experiment, he showed a man staring down with a blank face, then he would cut to different items and people. Depending on what specifically he would cut to, the audience would have a different reaction. So even though the man’s facial expression wouldn’t change, the feeling would change simply because of what appeared immediately after.An important part of this experiment to consider is how filmmakers decide to tell stories. We have total control over how the audience is feeling, and this shot-react-shot style of storytelling is perhaps our greatest asset. (It’s also quite fascinating to know how the mind works in relation to images.) Image association is the heart of filmmaking, and this experiment is proof of that.Image via No Film School.You can apply this logic to many different areas of your film. For example, if two characters are locked in an embrace, a good way to add even more emotion or reaction to the scene is to show somebody else watching them. This gives your audience more information about the scene, amplifying their overall reaction. This is just a brief way to keep your audience engaged and interested in the story. When you’re drafting up your shot list or writing the screenplay, think of how the audience will see these scenes play out. Consider the reactions and emotions you want them to feel, and make sure you get those shots later.Here are a few ways you can play with your edit by using different types of cuts: Cover image via Universal Pictures.Looking for more articles on the film industry? Check these out.Industry Trends: The Most Popular Gear Rentals of 2018Going Full-Time vs. Working Freelance: Which Is Best for You?Stop Telling People to Shoot Their Film on an iPhoneIndustry Insights: The Ins and Outs of Real Estate Video ProductionFour Reasons You Should Be Renting Your Gear Out on ShareGrid,Cover image via Universal Pictures.Looking for more articles on the film industry? Check these out.Industry Trends: The Most Popular Gear Rentals of 2018Going Full-Time vs. Working Freelance: Which Is Best for You?Stop Telling People to Shoot Their Film on an iPhoneIndustry Insights: The Ins and Outs of Real Estate Video ProductionFour Reasons You Should Be Renting Your Gear Out on ShareGridlast_img read more

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Mohali Test: Zaheer, Ponting have a spat

first_imgIndian pacer Zaheer Khan and Australian skipper Ricky Ponting were locked in spat on the opening day of the first Test between the two countries in Mohali on Friday.Soon after Ponting was run out at 72 runs, he and Zaheer had an ugly exchange of words. It’s not clear who started it all, but Ponting seemed so upset with the words thrown at him by Zaheer that he went on to confront him.Ponting was also seen pointing his bat towards Zaheer. It took umpire Billy Bowden’s intervention to cool things down. Indian and Australian cricketers have a history of spats, including the infamous episode in which Harbhajan Singh allegedly called Andrew Symonds a “monkey”.last_img

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