Darwin’s Sweatshop: Why Ethiopia Made People Hairless

first_imgFive scientists think they have figured out why people walk upright and don’t have fur like other mammals.  They had to evolve in Ethiopia, where it is hot.  This led to the loss of body hair, and the evolution of sweat glands and other adaptations to deal with the heat.    It’s not that the scientists from Caltech, Johns Hopkins and University of Utah actually found evidence for this.  It’s just that they studied rocks from the Turkana Basin, where some important fossils of alleged human ancestors have been found.  According to their analysis of carbonate rocks, the temperature has always been hot and arid in this area – for 4 million years, they claim.  They published their results in PNAS,1 and the story was picked up by Science Daily and PhysOrg.    Although their paper primarily concerned deducing climate and temperature from the rock record, they considered implications for human thermophysiology:This temperature record is relevant to the evolutionary origin or maintenance of a unique suite of adaptations that permit humans to remain active under high ambient heat loads.  For example, upright posture in hot, open environments confers thermophysiological advantages to bipedal hominins owing to reduced interception of direct solar radiation and to displacement of the body away from the near-surface environment, which may be excessively hot due to solar heating.  Derived human traits such as very little body hair, high sweating capacity, and high surface area to volume ratio are also advantageous for daytime activity in hot, arid climates, and temperature is a central variable in hypotheses of behaviors such as long-distance scavenging and persistence hunting.  However, the thermoregulatory advantages of these adaptations arise primarily under very hot, sunny conditions.  Our results suggest that such conditions were relevant to human ecology in the Turkana Basin, either directly within or at the spatial or temporal margins of human-preferred habitats….    Whereas our data are silent on the importance of ambient temperature in shaping human evolution, they comprise a necessary prerequisite for beginning to evaluate temperature-related hypotheses. [italics in original].If this is so, then it should also be a necessary prerequisite for beginning to evaluate the null hypothesis, or for evaluating why such conditions failed to generate similar physiological traits in the other mammals living alongside the humans in the same ecological environment.  It would also make one question why the hominids they believe inhabited South Africa, Europe and Asia for millions of years and during long ice ages did not quickly gain all that body hair right back.  The authors seemed to overlook those parts of the evolutionary logic.    The popular press swallowed it all without question, though.  “The need to stay cool in that cradle of human evolution may relate, at least in part, to why pre-humans learned to walk upright, lost the fur that covered the bodies of their predecessors and became able to sweat more, Johns Hopkins University earth scientist Benjamin Passey said.”  Perhaps they need to consider another uniquely human trait: blushing (see 12/19/2007 commentary).1.  Passey, Levin, Cerling, Brown, and Eiler, “High-temperature environments of human evolution in East Africa based on bond ordering in paleosol carbonates,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published online before print June 8, 2010, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1001824107.This has the makings of a great cartoon: the Turkana Gymnasium, where all the camels, wildebeests, zebras, giraffes, oryx, lions, cheetahs, and gerbils all strip down to the skin, stand upright, and work up a sweat under the hot sun, dancing to the beat of “Do the Evolution” (08/31/2006).(Visited 50 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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“No Timeframe” for Playstation Network Return After Hack

first_imgdan rowinski 9 Books That Make Perfect Gifts for Industry Ex… 5 Outdoor Activities for Beating Office Burnout Tags:#gaming#security#web 12 Unique Gifts for the Hard-to-Shop-for People…center_img The Sony Playstation Network hack that has plagued the video game platform since April 20 has forced the company to shutdown the service indefinitely while it works to rebuild the platform.The Playstation blog, a space normally used for gaming updates, tips and anecdotes, has been updating the status of the network about once a day since the initial attack brought down the platform last week. It said April 25 that the company does not have a timeframe for when the service will again be available.“I know you are waiting for additional information on when PlayStation Network and Qriocity services will be online. Unfortunately, I don’t have an update or timeframe to share at this point in time,” wrote Patrick Seybold, senior director for communications and social media at Playstation.The company acknowledged the hack April 22 in a post stating that an “external intrusion on our system has affected our PlayStation Network and Qriocity services. In order to conduct a thorough investigation and to verify the smooth and secure operation of our network services going forward, we turned off PlayStation Network & Qriocity services on the evening of Wednesday, April 20th.”Seybold wrote that the Playstation Network is “re-building our system to further strengthen our network infrastructure.” That suggest that the intrusion is not a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack but a more sophisticated hook into the system.International hacker group Anonymous, which has taken down websites large and small with DDoS attacks according to its political agenda, has denied responsibility for the attack. In a post on its message boards, Anonymous said “for once we didn’t do it.”Note: Unedited from the original Anonymous message, typos and all.Sony’s Playstation Network, its online service for Playstation 3 and its Playstation Portable consoles, suffered from a major outage today; which is on going as of this writting. According to Son’ys blog, the interruption in service may last into the long weekend – for at least another “full day or two”. Sony released a statement through its EU blog, saying that the network outage may be a result of “targeted behaviour by an outside party”, brining in the possibility of cyberattacks. Adding to the confusion is the fact that the message has since been removed.While it could be the case that other Anons have acted by themselves AnonOps wa not related to this incident and takes no responsiblity for it. A more likely explination is that Sony is taking advantage of Anonymous’ previous ill-will towards the company to distract users from the fact the outage is accutally an internal problem with the companies servers.Sony is incompetent.Anonymous had originally been upset with Sony over its decision to sue hacker George Hotz after he jailbroke the Playstation 3. Sony and Hotz settled the case earlier this month.The Playstation Network has upwards of 70 million members and has been around since 2006. It allows users to play multi-player games online, rent videos and games, watch Netflix movies, instant message and chat. Correction: Qriocity is an online European music service, not the European version of PSN as previously reported. 4 Keys to a Kid-Safe App Related Posts last_img read more

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Back on track

first_imgTrending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles01:30’Excited’ Terrence Romeo out to cherish first PBA finals appearance01:33Leo Austria, SMB wary of ‘more experienced’ Hotshots ahead of PBA Finals rematch02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Ray Parks Jr. and Mike DiGregorio picked up the scoring in the final two quarters to keep the Elasto Painters grounded and eventually give the Elite their fourth win in five games.TNT broke loose in the third period later in the night and went on to tear Phoenix Pulse to shreds, 114-88, behind some sterling individual performances.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsTerrence Jones scored 40 points, RR Pogoy finished with a career-high 31 and Jayson Castro completed a triple double with 13 rebounds, 11 points and the same number of assists in the KaTropa’s third win in four games.Coaches from both sides were ejected during the physical first half, with Phoenix also losing Jason Perkins, last year’s top rookie. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Denzel Bowles, another returning reinforcement, posted 27 points to pace Rain or Shine. He made up for a lackluster showing in the reboundingdepartment by sparking a late run that narrowed the deficit to just four.James Yap led Rain or Shine’s locals with 13 points, as Mark Borboran and Ed Daquioag had 10 each in the Elasto Painters’ second straight setback.“We wanted to share the basketball and we did so by getting 20 assists tonight. We also out-rebounded the Painters (56-49). It goes to show that our players are into it and they are working together,” Dimaunahan said.“I commend my players for staying focused. They stayed locked in,” he said.Blackwater takes on a listless NLEX next in the same venue this coming Saturday.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next PBA IMAGESANTIPOLO—Blackwater rode the hot shooting of Roi Sumang and Allein Maliksi for an early cushion and made use of that to turn back Rain or Shine, 98-92, Sunday in the PBA Commissioner’s Cup at Ynares Center here.Sumang and Maliksi, who both came off the bench, caught fire from deep and combined for 12 points to help establish control for the Elite, who went into the halftime break holding a 10-point lead.ADVERTISEMENT Dynamic FC snares Nofa Cup over stunned Barotac LATEST STORIES DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess Private companies step in to help SEA Games hostingcenter_img Two-day strike in Bicol fails to cripple transport PDEA chief backs Robredo in revealing ‘discoveries’ on drug war ‘Rebel attack’ no cause for concern-PNP, AFP Phoenix dropped to 1-1.It was a great bounce back for Blackwater, which suffered its first loss in the conference last week at the hands of Phoenix Pulse.“The challenge for us today was to be focused and to bounce back. And tonight they played very well,” rookie coach Aris Dimaunahan said. “We executed better compared to the last game.”Maliksi went on to lead all Blackwater shooters with 19 points, while Parks, Sumang and DiGregorio all finished with 11 or more in another balanced effort from the locals.Import Alex Stepheson had another double-double of 13 points and 20 rebounds.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ View comments Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue Catholic schools seek legislated pay hike, toolast_img read more

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